Um texto, em português, da Wikipédia:
Hibiscus L. é um gênero botânico, com cerca de three hundred espécies, inserido na família das Malvaceae, com flores e folhas exuberantes. Devido à nova taxonomia pela filogenética (Angiosperm Phylogeny Team), muitas espécies que pertenciam a esse gênero estão migrando para outros gêneros. Por exemplo: Hibiscus esculentus L., a planta do quiabo, agora é Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. O cultivo dos exemplares do gênero, tanto decorative como econômico, está disseminado nas regiões subtropicais e tropicais, cuidando para não sofrerem com geadas e temperaturas baixas constantes.
Hibiscus significa Ísis (deusa egípcia), em grego.
Bombycidendron Zoll. & Moritzi
Brockmania W. Fitzg.
Hibiscus x archeri (híbrido)
Hibiscus mutabilis (malva-rosa)
Hibiscus pernambucensis (guanxuma-do-mangue)
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (hibisco)
Hibiscus sabdariffa (vinagreira)
Hibiscus schizopetalus (hibisco-crespo)
Hibiscus syriacus (hibisco-da-síria)
Hibiscus tiliaceus (algodoeiro-da-praia)
Hibiscus trionum (flor-de-todas-as-horas)
Em Portugal este género está representado por 2 espécies, presentes em Portugal Continental, a primeira nativa, a segunda introduzida:1
Hibiscus palustris L.
Hibiscus trionum L.
Classificação do gênero:
Sistema Classificação Referência
Linné Classe Monadelphia, ordem Polyandria Species plantarum (1753)
Papuodendron C. T. White
A textual content, in english, from Wikipedia, the totally free encyclopedia:
For other works by using, see Hibiscus (disambiguation).
Hibiscus flower TZ.jpg
Loved ones: Malvaceae
Bombycidendron Zoll. & Moritzi
Hibiscus (/hɨˈbɪskəs/ or /haɪˈbɪskəs/) is a genus of flowering crops in the mallow loved ones, Malvaceae. It is pretty huge, that contains a number of hundred species that are indigenous to heat-temperate, subtropical and tropical regions during the planet. Member species are often observed for their showy bouquets and are usually acknowledged just as hibiscus, or considerably less widely acknowledged as rose mallow. The genus contains equally once-a-year and perennial herbaceous crops, as effectively as woody shrubs and smaller trees. The generic title is derived from the Greek phrase ἱβίσκος (hibískos), which was the title Pedanius Dioscorides (ca. 40–90) gave to Althaea officinalis.
The leaves are alternate, ovate to lanceolate, often with a toothed or lobed margin. The bouquets are huge, conspicuous, trumpet-formed, with 5 or additional petals, shade from white to pink, red, orange, purple or yellow, and from 4–18 cm wide. Flower shade in sure species, these kinds of as H. mutabilis and H. tiliaceus, variations with age.[five] The fruit is a dry 5-lobed capsule, that contains a number of seeds in each lobe, which are produced when the capsule dehisces (splits open) at maturity. It is of red and white colours. It is an case in point of complete bouquets.
Makes use of:
Symbolism and culture
Hibiscus species characterize nations: Hibiscus syriacus is the countrywide flower of South Korea, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is the countrywide flower of Malaysia. The hibiscus is the countrywide flower of Haiti. The red hibiscus is the flower of the Hindu goddess Kali, and appears often in depictions of her in the artwork of Bengal, India, often with the goddess and the flower merging in kind. The hibiscus is utilized as an giving to goddess Kali and Lord Ganesha in Hindu worship.
In the Philippines, the gumamela (area title for hibiscus) is utilized by small children as element of a bubble-creating pastime. The bouquets and leaves are crushed right up until the sticky juices arrive out. Hollow papaya stalks are then dipped into this and utilized as straws for blowing bubbles.
The hibiscus flower is traditionally worn by Tahitian and Hawaiian girls. If the flower is worn behind the left ear, the girl is married or in a romance. If the flower is worn on the right, she is single or overtly accessible for a romance. The hibiscus is Hawaii’s state flower.
Nigerian writer Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie named her first novel Purple Hibiscus right after the delicate flower.
The bark of the hibiscus contains sturdy bast fibres that can be attained by permitting the stripped bark established in the sea to permit the organic and natural material rot absent.
Quite a few species are grown for their showy bouquets or utilized as landscape shrubs, and are utilized to attract butterflies, bees, and hummingbirds.
Just one species of Hibiscus, acknowledged as kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), is extensively utilized in paper-creating.
Principal write-up: Hibiscus tea
The tea made of hibiscus bouquets is acknowledged by numerous names in numerous international locations about the planet and is served equally incredibly hot and cold. The beverage is effectively acknowledged for its shade, tanginess and flavor.
It is acknowledged as bissap in West Africa, agua de jamaica in Mexico and Honduras (the flower remaining flor de jamaica) and gudhal (गुड़हल) in India. Some refer to it as roselle, a popular title for the hibiscus flower. In Jamaica, Trinidad and numerous other islands in the Caribbean, the drink is acknowledged as sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa not to be puzzled with Rumex acetosa, a species sharing the popular title sorrel). In Ghana, the drink is acknowledged as soobolo in just one of the area languages.
Roselle is normally boiled in an enamel-coated huge stock pot as most West Indians consider the steel from aluminum, metal or copper pots will damage the normal minerals and nutritional vitamins.[citation desired]
In Cambodia, a cold beverage can be ready by first steeping the petals in incredibly hot water right up until the hues are leached from the petals, then introducing lime juice (which turns the beverage from darkish brown/red to a vivid red), sweeteners (sugar/honey) and eventually cold water/ice cubes.
In Egypt,[citation desired] Sudan and the Arab planet, hibiscus tea is acknowledged as karkadé (كركديه), and is served as equally a incredibly hot and a cold drink.
Dried hibiscus is edible, and it is often a delicacy in Mexico. It can also be candied and utilized as a garnish.
The roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is utilized as a vegetable. The species Hibiscus suratensis Linn synonymous to Hibiscus aculeatus G. Don is observed in Visayas Philippines remaining a souring ingredient for almost all area vegetables and menus. Identified as Labog in the Visayan spot, (or Labuag/Sapinit in Tagalog), the species is a really excellent ingredient in cooking indigenous hen soup. Certain species of hibiscus are also beginning to be utilized additional widely as a normal supply of food items coloring (E163),[citation desired] and substitute of Pink #three / E127.
Hibiscus species are utilized as food items crops by the larvae of some Lepidopteran species, which include Chionodes hibiscella, Hypercompe hambletoni, the nutmeg moth, and the turnip moth.
The tea is well known as a normal diuretic it contains vitamin C and minerals, and is utilized traditionally as a delicate medication.
A 2008 USDA research exhibits consuming hibiscus tea lowers blood pressure in a group of prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive older people. A few cups of tea day-to-day resulted in an typical drop of 8.1 mmHg in their systolic blood pressure, in contrast to a 1.three mmHg drop in the volunteers who drank the placebo beverage. Examine contributors with better blood pressure readings (129 or previously mentioned) experienced a higher response to hibiscus tea: their systolic blood pressure went down by thirteen.2 mmHg. These info assist the idea that ingesting hibiscus tea in an sum commonly included into the diet program may perform a part in managing blood pressure, even though additional research is necessary.
Scientific tests have demonstrated the anti-hypertensive outcomes of H. sabdariffa in equally individuals and animals. It has been proposed that the antihypertensive outcomes of H. sabdariffa is owing to its angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting exercise. In a randomized, managed clinical demo involving 39 clients with delicate to average hypertension, Captopril was in contrast to an extract of H. sabdariffa for antihypertensive outcomes. Subjects taking an extract of H.sabdariffa, eaten day-to-day before breakfast for four weeks, located reduction in blood pressure equivalent to Captopril. A further randomized, placebo clinical demo involving 54 research contributors with average hypertension demonstrated a reduction in equally systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Having said that upon discontinuation of treatment method, equally systolic and diastolic blood pressures were subsequently elevated.
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a variety of clinical works by using in Chinese herbology. Lokapure s.g.et al. their research suggests some likely in beauty skin treatment for case in point, an extract from the bouquets of Hibiscus rosa- sinensis has been shown to purpose as an anti-solar agent by absorbing ultraviolet radiation.
In the Indian conventional method of medication, Ayurveda, hibiscus, primarily white hibiscus and red hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), is regarded to have medicinal properties. The roots are utilized to make different concoctions considered to cure conditions these kinds of as cough, hair loss or hair greying. As a hair treatment method, the bouquets are boiled in oil together with other spices to make a medicated hair oil. The leaves and bouquets are ground into a good paste with a tiny water, and the ensuing lathery paste is utilized as a shampoo as well as conditioner.
Hibiscus tea also contains bioflavonoids, which are considered to support avert an increase in LDL cholesterol, which can increase the buildup of plaque in the arteries.
A former animal research demonstrated the outcomes of H.sabdariffa extract on atherosclerosis in rabbits. Notably, a reduction in triglyceride, cholesterol, and lower-density lipoprotein was observed in rabbits consuming a large cholesterol diet program (HCD) in addition to H.sabdariffa extract in contrast to rabbits only fed HCD, suggesting a effective outcome.[sixteen] Additionally, the H. sabdariffa seed is plentiful in phytosterol and tocopherol, plant kinds of cholesterol that have antioxidant and LDL cholesterol lowering outcomes.
Precautions and Contraindications:
Being pregnant and Lactation
Though the mechanism is not effectively understood, former animal scientific studies have demonstrated equally an inhibitory outcome of H. sabdariffa on muscle tone and the anti-fertility outcomes of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, respectively. The extract of H. sabdariffa has been shown to promote contraction of the rat bladder and uterus the H.rosa-sinensis extract has exhibited contraceptive outcomes in the kind of estrogen exercise in rats. These findings have not been observed in individuals. The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is also imagined to have emmenagogue outcomes which can promote menstruation and, in some gals, result in an abortion. Thanks to the documented adverse outcomes in animal scientific studies and the documented pharmacological properties, the H. sabdariffa and H.rosa-sinensis are not recommended for use for the duration of pregnancy. Furthermore, they are not recommended although breastfeeding owing to the lack of responsible information and facts on its safety and use.
No contraindications have been determined.
It is postulated that H. sabdariffa interacts with diclofenac, chloroquine and acetaminophen by altering the pharmacokinetics. In wholesome human volunteers, the H. sabdariffa extract was located to reduce the excretion of diclofenac upon co-administration. Furthermore, co-administration of Karkade (H. sabdariffa), a popular Sudanese beverage, was located to reduce chloroquine bioavailability. Having said that, no statistically substantial variations were observed in the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen when administered with the Zobo (H.sabdariffa) drink. Further scientific studies are desired to show clinical importance.
In temperate zones, possibly the most usually grown decorative species is Hibiscus syriacus, the popular back garden hibiscus, also acknowledged in some areas as the “Rose of Althea” or “Rose of Sharon” (but not to be puzzled with the unrelated Hypericum calycinum, also referred to as “Rose of Sharon”). In tropical and subtropical areas, the Chinese hibiscus (H. rosa-sinensis), with its numerous showy hybrids, is the most well known hibiscus.
Various hundred species are acknowledged, which include:
Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex Hiern.—False Roselle
Hibiscus archeri—Archer’s Hibiscus
Hibiscus arnottianus A.Gray—Kokiʻo ʻula (Hawaii)
Hibiscus asper—Bush Roselle
Hibiscus bifurcatus—Fork-bracted Rosemallow
Hibiscus biseptus—Arizona Rosemallow
Hibiscus boryanus—Foulsapate Marron
Hibiscus brackenridgei A.Gray—Hawaiian hibiscus Maʻo hau hele
Hibiscus caesius—Dark-eyed Hibiscus (South Africa)
Hibiscus calyphyllus—Lemonyellow Rosemallow (Tropical Africa)
Hibiscus cameronii—Cameron’s Hibiscus, Pink Hibiscus
Hibiscus cannabinus L.—Kenaf
Hibiscus cisplatinus—Rosa Del Rio
Hibiscus clayi O.Deg. & I.Deg.—Hawaiian red hibiscus (Hawaii)
Hibiscus clypeatus—Congo Mahoe
Hibiscus coccineus (Medik.) Walter—Scarlet Rosemallow
Hibiscus columnaris—Mahot Rempart
Hibiscus coulteri—Desert Rosemallow
Hibiscus dasycalyx—Neches River Rosemallow
Hibiscus denudatus Benth.—Pale Experience (Southwestern United States, Northwestern Mexico)
Hibiscus dioscorides A.G.Mill. (es/pt) (Yemen)
Hibiscus diriffan A.G.Mill. (Yemen)
Hibiscus diversifolius—Swamp Hibiscus
Hibiscus engleri—Wild Hibiscus
Hibiscus fragilis DC.—Mandrinette (Mascarene Islands)
Hibiscus furcellatus Desr.—Lindenleaf rosemallow (Caribbean, Florida, Central The us, South The us, Hawaii)
Hibiscus furcellatus—Salad Hibiscus
Hibiscus genevii Bojer (Mauritius)
Hibiscus grandiflorus Michx.—Swamp rosemallow (Southeastern United States)
Hibiscus heterophyllus—Native rosella
Hibiscus hirtus—Lesser Mallow
Hibiscus insularis Endl.—Phillip Island hibiscus (Phillip Island)
Hibiscus kokio—Red Rosemallow
Hibiscus laevis All. (=H. militaris)—Halberd-leaved rosemallow (central and eastern North The us)
Hibiscus lasiocarpos—Woolly Rosemallow
Hibiscus leptocladus ([Northwest Australia])
Hibiscus lilacinus—Lilac Hibiscus
Hibiscus liliiflorus—Rodrigues Tree Hibiscus
Hibiscus macrophyllus—Largeleaf Rosemallow
Hibiscus makinoi—Okinawan Hibiscus
Hibiscus malacophyllus Balf.f. (Yemen)
Hibiscus martianus—Heartleaf Rosemallow
Hibiscus moscheutos Welw. ex Hiern.—Crimsoneyed Rosemallow (Central and Jap North The us)
Hibiscus mutabilis L.—Cotton Rosemallow, Accomplice Rose (East Asia)
Hibiscus pernambucensis—Seaside Mahoe
Hibiscus phoeniceus—Brazilian Rosemallow
Hibiscus poeppigii—Poeppig’s Rosemallow
Hibiscus radiatus—Monarch Rosemallow
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.—Chinese hibiscus (East Asia)
Hibiscus sabdariffa L.—Roselle, Omutete, or Sorrel
Hibiscus schizopetalus—Fringed Rosemallow
Hibiscus stenanthus Balf.f. (Yemen)
Hibiscus striatus—Striped Rosemallow
Hibiscus syriacus L. (Sort species)—Rose of Sharon (Asia)
Hibiscus tiliaceus L.—Sea hibiscus (Australia, Southeast Asia, Oceania)
Hibiscus trilobus—Threelobe Rosemallow
Hibiscus trionum L.—Flower-of-an-Hour
Hibiscus vitifolius—Tropical Rose Mallow
Hibiscus waimeae A.Heller—Kokiʻo keʻokeʻo (Hawaii)
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