Um texto, em português, da Wikipédia:
Hibiscus L. é um gênero botânico, com cerca de 300 espécies, inserido na família das Malvaceae, com flores e folhas exuberantes. Devido à nova taxonomia pela filogenética (Angiosperm Phylogeny Team), muitas espécies que pertenciam a esse gênero estão migrando para outros gêneros. Por exemplo: Hibiscus esculentus L., a planta do quiabo, agora é Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. O cultivo dos exemplares do gênero, tanto ornamental como econômico, está disseminado nas regiões subtropicais e tropicais, cuidando para não sofrerem com geadas e temperaturas baixas constantes.
Hibiscus significa Ísis (deusa egípcia), em grego.
Bombycidendron Zoll. & Moritzi
Brockmania W. Fitzg.
Hibiscus x archeri (híbrido)
Hibiscus mutabilis (malva-rosa)
Hibiscus pernambucensis (guanxuma-do-mangue)
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (hibisco)
Hibiscus sabdariffa (vinagreira)
Hibiscus schizopetalus (hibisco-crespo)
Hibiscus syriacus (hibisco-da-síria)
Hibiscus tiliaceus (algodoeiro-da-praia)
Hibiscus trionum (flor-de-todas-as-horas)
Em Portugal este género está representado por two espécies, presentes em Portugal Continental, a primeira nativa, a segunda introduzida:1
Hibiscus palustris L.
Hibiscus trionum L.
Classificação do gênero:
Sistema Classificação Referência
Linné Classe Monadelphia, ordem Polyandria Species plantarum (1753)
Papuodendron C. T. White
A text, in english, from Wikipedia, the totally free encyclopedia:
For other utilizes, see Hibiscus (disambiguation).
Hibiscus flower TZ.jpg
Loved ones: Malvaceae
Bombycidendron Zoll. & Moritzi
Hibiscus (/hɨˈbɪskəs/ or /haɪˈbɪskəs/) is a genus of flowering crops in the mallow household, Malvaceae. It is really big, that contains various hundred species that are indigenous to warm-temperate, subtropical and tropical regions throughout the planet. Member species are normally famous for their showy flowers and are commonly recognized just as hibiscus, or considerably less extensively recognized as rose mallow. The genus incorporates both annual and perennial herbaceous crops, as perfectly as woody shrubs and compact trees. The generic title is derived from the Greek word ἱβίσκος (hibískos), which was the title Pedanius Dioscorides (ca. 40–90) gave to Althaea officinalis.
The leaves are alternate, ovate to lanceolate, normally with a toothed or lobed margin. The flowers are big, conspicuous, trumpet-formed, with 5 or far more petals, color from white to pink, red, orange, purple or yellow, and from 4–18 cm broad. Flower color in sure species, these types of as H. mutabilis and H. tiliaceus, adjustments with age.[five] The fruit is a dry 5-lobed capsule, that contains various seeds in each lobe, which are released when the capsule dehisces (splits open up) at maturity. It is of red and white colours. It is an example of entire flowers.
Symbolism and society
Hibiscus species symbolize nations: Hibiscus syriacus is the nationwide flower of South Korea, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is the nationwide flower of Malaysia. The hibiscus is the nationwide flower of Haiti. The red hibiscus is the flower of the Hindu goddess Kali, and seems frequently in depictions of her in the artwork of Bengal, India, normally with the goddess and the flower merging in type. The hibiscus is used as an giving to goddess Kali and Lord Ganesha in Hindu worship.
In the Philippines, the gumamela (local title for hibiscus) is used by youngsters as section of a bubble-earning pastime. The flowers and leaves are crushed right up until the sticky juices appear out. Hollow papaya stalks are then dipped into this and used as straws for blowing bubbles.
The hibiscus flower is ordinarily worn by Tahitian and Hawaiian girls. If the flower is worn powering the remaining ear, the woman is married or in a marriage. If the flower is worn on the proper, she is one or brazenly accessible for a marriage. The hibiscus is Hawaii’s condition flower.
Nigerian creator Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie named her initial novel Purple Hibiscus soon after the sensitive flower.
The bark of the hibiscus contains strong bast fibres that can be attained by letting the stripped bark established in the sea to enable the natural substance rot away.
A lot of species are developed for their showy flowers or used as landscape shrubs, and are used to appeal to butterflies, bees, and hummingbirds.
A single species of Hibiscus, recognized as kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), is extensively used in paper-earning.
Most important article: Hibiscus tea
The tea made of hibiscus flowers is recognized by a lot of names in a lot of countries close to the planet and is served both warm and cold. The beverage is perfectly recognized for its color, tanginess and taste.
It is recognized as bissap in West Africa, agua de jamaica in Mexico and Honduras (the flower becoming flor de jamaica) and gudhal (गुड़हल) in India. Some refer to it as roselle, a widespread title for the hibiscus flower. In Jamaica, Trinidad and a lot of other islands in the Caribbean, the drink is recognized as sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa not to be baffled with Rumex acetosa, a species sharing the widespread title sorrel). In Ghana, the drink is recognized as soobolo in just one of the local languages.
Roselle is generally boiled in an enamel-coated big inventory pot as most West Indians feel the metal from aluminum, metal or copper pots will demolish the pure minerals and vitamins.[citation necessary]
In Cambodia, a cold beverage can be prepared by initial steeping the petals in warm h2o right up until the colours are leached from the petals, then including lime juice (which turns the beverage from dark brown/red to a vibrant red), sweeteners (sugar/honey) and eventually cold h2o/ice cubes.
In Egypt,[citation necessary] Sudan and the Arab planet, hibiscus tea is recognized as karkadé (كركديه), and is served as both a warm and a cold drink.
Dried hibiscus is edible, and it is normally a delicacy in Mexico. It can also be candied and used as a garnish.
The roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is used as a vegetable. The species Hibiscus suratensis Linn synonymous to Hibiscus aculeatus G. Don is famous in Visayas Philippines becoming a souring ingredient for nearly all local vegetables and menus. Recognized as Labog in the Visayan location, (or Labuag/Sapinit in Tagalog), the species is a incredibly good ingredient in cooking indigenous rooster soup. Certain species of hibiscus are also beginning to be used far more extensively as a pure source of food stuff coloring (E163),[citation necessary] and substitute of Red #three / E127.
Hibiscus species are used as food stuff crops by the larvae of some Lepidopteran species, including Chionodes hibiscella, Hypercompe hambletoni, the nutmeg moth, and the turnip moth.
The tea is well-known as a pure diuretic it contains vitamin C and minerals, and is used ordinarily as a moderate medicine.
A 2008 USDA examine shows consuming hibiscus tea lowers blood tension in a team of prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults. 3 cups of tea day-to-day resulted in an ordinary drop of eight.1 mmHg in their systolic blood tension, in comparison to a 1.three mmHg drop in the volunteers who drank the placebo beverage. Study members with higher blood tension readings (129 or previously mentioned) had a higher reaction to hibiscus tea: their systolic blood tension went down by thirteen.two mmHg. These info help the thought that ingesting hibiscus tea in an sum conveniently included into the diet plan could engage in a position in managing blood tension, whilst far more analysis is required.
Studies have shown the anti-hypertensive outcomes of H. sabdariffa in both humans and animals. It has been proposed that the antihypertensive outcomes of H. sabdariffa is owing to its angiotensin-changing enzyme inhibiting exercise. In a randomized, controlled clinical trial involving 39 sufferers with moderate to average hypertension, Captopril was in comparison to an extract of H. sabdariffa for antihypertensive outcomes. Topics taking an extract of H.sabdariffa, consumed day-to-day prior to breakfast for 4 weeks, located reduction in blood tension equivalent to Captopril. Yet another randomized, placebo clinical trial involving 54 examine members with average hypertension shown a reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood tension. Nonetheless upon discontinuation of therapy, both systolic and diastolic blood pressures ended up subsequently elevated.
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a quantity of clinical utilizes in Chinese herbology. Lokapure s.g.et al. their analysis implies some probable in beauty pores and skin treatment for example, an extract from the flowers of Hibiscus rosa- sinensis has been shown to function as an anti-solar agent by absorbing ultraviolet radiation.
In the Indian regular technique of medicine, Ayurveda, hibiscus, especially white hibiscus and red hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), is deemed to have medicinal homes. The roots are used to make numerous concoctions thought to treatment ailments these types of as cough, hair loss or hair greying. As a hair therapy, the flowers are boiled in oil together with other spices to make a medicated hair oil. The leaves and flowers are ground into a fine paste with a very little h2o, and the ensuing lathery paste is used as a shampoo moreover conditioner.
Hibiscus tea also contains bioflavonoids, which are thought to assistance stop an enhance in LDL cholesterol, which can enhance the buildup of plaque in the arteries.
A former animal examine shown the outcomes of H.sabdariffa extract on atherosclerosis in rabbits. Notably, a reduction in triglyceride, cholesterol, and lower-density lipoprotein was observed in rabbits consuming a high cholesterol diet plan (HCD) in addition to H.sabdariffa extract in comparison to rabbits only fed HCD, suggesting a effective result. Also, the H. sabdariffa seed is abundant in phytosterol and tocopherol, plant sorts of cholesterol that have antioxidant and LDL cholesterol reducing outcomes.
Safety measures and Contraindications:
Being pregnant and Lactation
Even though the mechanism is not perfectly comprehended, former animal reports have shown both an inhibitory result of H. sabdariffa on muscle tone and the anti-fertility outcomes of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, respectively. The extract of H. sabdariffa has been shown to promote contraction of the rat bladder and uterus the H.rosa-sinensis extract has exhibited contraceptive outcomes in the type of estrogen exercise in rats. These conclusions have not been observed in humans. The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is also imagined to have emmenagogue outcomes which can promote menstruation and, in some ladies, bring about an abortion. Owing to the documented adverse outcomes in animal reports and the noted pharmacological homes, the H. sabdariffa and H.rosa-sinensis are not proposed for use during being pregnant. On top of that, they are not proposed while breastfeeding owing to the lack of trusted data on its protection and use.
No contraindications have been recognized.
It is postulated that H. sabdariffa interacts with diclofenac, chloroquine and acetaminophen by altering the pharmacokinetics. In healthier human volunteers, the H. sabdariffa extract was located to decrease the excretion of diclofenac upon co-administration. On top of that, co-administration of Karkade (H. sabdariffa), a widespread Sudanese beverage, was located to decrease chloroquine bioavailability. Nonetheless, no statistically substantial adjustments ended up observed in the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen when administered with the Zobo (H.sabdariffa) drink. More reports are necessary to show clinical importance.
In temperate zones, most likely the most commonly developed ornamental species is Hibiscus syriacus, the widespread back garden hibiscus, also recognized in some regions as the “Rose of Althea” or “Rose of Sharon” (but not to be baffled with the unrelated Hypericum calycinum, also identified as “Rose of Sharon”). In tropical and subtropical regions, the Chinese hibiscus (H. rosa-sinensis), with its a lot of showy hybrids, is the most well-known hibiscus.
A number of hundred species are recognized, including:
Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex Hiern.—False Roselle
Hibiscus archeri—Archer’s Hibiscus
Hibiscus arnottianus A.Gray—Kokiʻo ʻula (Hawaii)
Hibiscus asper—Bush Roselle
Hibiscus bifurcatus—Fork-bracted Rosemallow
Hibiscus biseptus—Arizona Rosemallow
Hibiscus boryanus—Foulsapate Marron
Hibiscus brackenridgei A.Gray—Hawaiian hibiscus Maʻo hau hele
Hibiscus caesius—Dark-eyed Hibiscus (South Africa)
Hibiscus calyphyllus—Lemonyellow Rosemallow (Tropical Africa)
Hibiscus cameronii—Cameron’s Hibiscus, Pink Hibiscus
Hibiscus cannabinus L.—Kenaf
Hibiscus cisplatinus—Rosa Del Rio
Hibiscus clayi O.Deg. & I.Deg.—Hawaiian red hibiscus (Hawaii)
Hibiscus clypeatus—Congo Mahoe
Hibiscus coccineus (Medik.) Walter—Scarlet Rosemallow
Hibiscus columnaris—Mahot Rempart
Hibiscus coulteri—Desert Rosemallow
Hibiscus dasycalyx—Neches River Rosemallow
Hibiscus denudatus Benth.—Pale Face (Southwestern United States, Northwestern Mexico)
Hibiscus dioscorides A.G.Mill. (es/pt) (Yemen)
Hibiscus diriffan A.G.Mill. (Yemen)
Hibiscus diversifolius—Swamp Hibiscus
Hibiscus engleri—Wild Hibiscus
Hibiscus fragilis DC.—Mandrinette (Mascarene Islands)
Hibiscus furcellatus Desr.—Lindenleaf rosemallow (Caribbean, Florida, Central The united states, South The united states, Hawaii)
Hibiscus furcellatus—Salad Hibiscus
Hibiscus genevii Bojer (Mauritius)
Hibiscus grandiflorus Michx.—Swamp rosemallow (Southeastern United States)
Hibiscus heterophyllus—Native rosella
Hibiscus hirtus—Lesser Mallow
Hibiscus insularis Endl.—Phillip Island hibiscus (Phillip Island)
Hibiscus kokio—Red Rosemallow
Hibiscus laevis All. (=H. militaris)—Halberd-leaved rosemallow (central and japanese North The united states)
Hibiscus lasiocarpos—Woolly Rosemallow
Hibiscus leptocladus ([Northwest Australia])
Hibiscus lilacinus—Lilac Hibiscus
Hibiscus liliiflorus—Rodrigues Tree Hibiscus
Hibiscus macrophyllus—Largeleaf Rosemallow
Hibiscus makinoi—Okinawan Hibiscus
Hibiscus malacophyllus Balf.f. (Yemen)
Hibiscus martianus—Heartleaf Rosemallow
Hibiscus moscheutos Welw. ex Hiern.—Crimsoneyed Rosemallow (Central and Eastern North The united states)
Hibiscus mutabilis L.—Cotton Rosemallow, Accomplice Rose (East Asia)
Hibiscus pernambucensis—Seaside Mahoe
Hibiscus phoeniceus—Brazilian Rosemallow
Hibiscus poeppigii—Poeppig’s Rosemallow
Hibiscus radiatus—Monarch Rosemallow
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.—Chinese hibiscus (East Asia)
Hibiscus sabdariffa L.—Roselle, Omutete, or Sorrel
Hibiscus schizopetalus—Fringed Rosemallow
Hibiscus stenanthus Balf.f. (Yemen)
Hibiscus striatus—Striped Rosemallow
Hibiscus syriacus L. (Form species)—Rose of Sharon (Asia)
Hibiscus tiliaceus L.—Sea hibiscus (Australia, Southeast Asia, Oceania)
Hibiscus trilobus—Threelobe Rosemallow
Hibiscus trionum L.—Flower-of-an-Hour
Hibiscus vitifolius—Tropical Rose Mallow
Hibiscus waimeae A.Heller—Kokiʻo keʻokeʻo (Hawaii)
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