Um texto, em português, da Wikipédia:
Hibiscus L. é um gênero botânico, com cerca de 300 espécies, inserido na família das Malvaceae, com flores e folhas exuberantes. Devido à nova taxonomia pela filogenética (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group), muitas espécies que pertenciam a esse gênero estão migrando para outros gêneros. Por exemplo: Hibiscus esculentus L., a planta do quiabo, agora é Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. O cultivo dos exemplares do gênero, tanto ornamental como econômico, está disseminado nas regiões subtropicais e tropicais, cuidando para não sofrerem com geadas e temperaturas baixas constantes.
Hibiscus significa Ísis (deusa egípcia), em grego.
Bombycidendron Zoll. & Moritzi
Brockmania W. Fitzg.
Hibiscus x archeri (híbrido)
Hibiscus mutabilis (malva-rosa)
Hibiscus pernambucensis (guanxuma-do-mangue)
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (hibisco)
Hibiscus sabdariffa (vinagreira)
Hibiscus schizopetalus (hibisco-crespo)
Hibiscus syriacus (hibisco-da-síria)
Hibiscus tiliaceus (algodoeiro-da-praia)
Hibiscus trionum (flor-de-todas-as-horas)
Em Portugal este género está representado por 2 espécies, presentes em Portugal Continental, a primeira nativa, a segunda introduzida:1
Hibiscus palustris L.
Hibiscus trionum L.
Classificação do gênero:
Sistema Classificação Referência
Linné Classe Monadelphia, ordem Polyandria Species plantarum (1753)
Papuodendron C. T. White
A textual content, in english, from Wikipedia, the free of charge encyclopedia:
For other utilizes, see Hibiscus (disambiguation).
Hibiscus flower TZ.jpg
Spouse and children: Malvaceae
Bombycidendron Zoll. & Moritzi
Hibiscus (/hɨˈbɪskəs/ or /haɪˈbɪskəs/) is a genus of flowering vegetation in the mallow spouse and children, Malvaceae. It is really large, that contains several hundred species that are native to heat-temperate, subtropical and tropical regions throughout the world. Member species are frequently mentioned for their showy bouquets and are generally acknowledged simply as hibiscus, or less commonly acknowledged as rose mallow. The genus consists of the two yearly and perennial herbaceous vegetation, as properly as woody shrubs and modest trees. The generic identify is derived from the Greek phrase ἱβίσκος (hibískos), which was the identify Pedanius Dioscorides (ca. 40–90) gave to Althaea officinalis.
The leaves are alternate, ovate to lanceolate, frequently with a toothed or lobed margin. The bouquets are large, conspicuous, trumpet-shaped, with 5 or far more petals, colour from white to pink, pink, orange, purple or yellow, and from 4–18 cm wide. Flower colour in particular species, this sort of as H. mutabilis and H. tiliaceus, improvements with age. The fruit is a dry 5-lobed capsule, that contains several seeds in just about every lobe, which are launched when the capsule dehisces (splits open up) at maturity. It is of pink and white colours. It is an example of full bouquets.
Symbolism and culture
Hibiscus species stand for nations: Hibiscus syriacus is the countrywide flower of South Korea, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is the countrywide flower of Malaysia. The hibiscus is the countrywide flower of Haiti. The pink hibiscus is the flower of the Hindu goddess Kali, and seems often in depictions of her in the art of Bengal, India, frequently with the goddess and the flower merging in sort. The hibiscus is utilised as an presenting to goddess Kali and Lord Ganesha in Hindu worship.
In the Philippines, the gumamela (community identify for hibiscus) is utilised by kids as portion of a bubble-creating pastime. The bouquets and leaves are crushed right up until the sticky juices come out. Hollow papaya stalks are then dipped into this and utilised as straws for blowing bubbles.
The hibiscus flower is ordinarily worn by Tahitian and Hawaiian women. If the flower is worn driving the still left ear, the lady is married or in a romance. If the flower is worn on the suitable, she is solitary or brazenly available for a romance. The hibiscus is Hawaii’s condition flower.
Nigerian writer Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie named her to start with novel Purple Hibiscus after the fragile flower.
The bark of the hibiscus includes robust bast fibres that can be received by permitting the stripped bark established in the sea to enable the organic product rot away.
Many species are developed for their showy bouquets or utilised as landscape shrubs, and are utilised to appeal to butterflies, bees, and hummingbirds.
A single species of Hibiscus, acknowledged as kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), is thoroughly utilised in paper-creating.
Principal post: Hibiscus tea
The tea made of hibiscus bouquets is acknowledged by a lot of names in a lot of nations around the world all-around the world and is served the two hot and chilly. The beverage is properly acknowledged for its colour, tanginess and flavor.
It is acknowledged as bissap in West Africa, agua de jamaica in Mexico and Honduras (the flower becoming flor de jamaica) and gudhal (गुड़हल) in India. Some refer to it as roselle, a typical identify for the hibiscus flower. In Jamaica, Trinidad and a lot of other islands in the Caribbean, the drink is acknowledged as sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa not to be confused with Rumex acetosa, a species sharing the typical identify sorrel). In Ghana, the drink is acknowledged as soobolo in one particular of the community languages.
Roselle is commonly boiled in an enamel-coated large inventory pot as most West Indians imagine the metal from aluminum, metal or copper pots will wipe out the purely natural minerals and natural vitamins.[quotation essential]
In Cambodia, a chilly beverage can be ready by to start with steeping the petals in hot water right up until the hues are leached from the petals, then introducing lime juice (which turns the beverage from darkish brown/pink to a dazzling pink), sweeteners (sugar/honey) and at last chilly water/ice cubes.
In Egypt,[quotation essential] Sudan and the Arab world, hibiscus tea is acknowledged as karkadé (كركديه), and is served as the two a hot and a chilly drink.
Dried hibiscus is edible, and it is frequently a delicacy in Mexico. It can also be candied and utilised as a garnish.
The roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is utilised as a vegetable. The species Hibiscus suratensis Linn synonymous to Hibiscus aculeatus G. Don is mentioned in Visayas Philippines becoming a souring component for nearly all community greens and menus. Recognised as Labog in the Visayan place, (or Labuag/Sapinit in Tagalog), the species is a really good component in cooking native hen soup. Specific species of hibiscus are also starting to be utilised far more commonly as a purely natural resource of foodstuff coloring (E163),[quotation essential] and replacement of Pink #3 / E127.
Hibiscus species are utilised as foodstuff vegetation by the larvae of some Lepidopteran species, together with Chionodes hibiscella, Hypercompe hambletoni, the nutmeg moth, and the turnip moth.
Well being benefits
The tea is popular as a purely natural diuretic it includes vitamin C and minerals, and is utilised ordinarily as a mild medicine.
A 2008 USDA study demonstrates consuming hibiscus tea lowers blood strain in a group of prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive older people. Three cups of tea day-to-day resulted in an average fall of 8.1 mmHg in their systolic blood strain, when compared to a 1.3 mmHg fall in the volunteers who drank the placebo beverage. Study members with higher blood strain readings (129 or over) experienced a increased reaction to hibiscus tea: their systolic blood strain went down by thirteen.2 mmHg. These info help the thought that drinking hibiscus tea in an volume easily included into the diet program may participate in a position in controlling blood strain, even though far more investigation is demanded.
Reports have demonstrated the anti-hypertensive effects of H. sabdariffa in the two humans and animals. It has been proposed that the antihypertensive effects of H. sabdariffa is because of to its angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting exercise. In a randomized, controlled clinical trial involving 39 clients with mild to reasonable hypertension, Captopril was when compared to an extract of H. sabdariffa for antihypertensive effects. Topics using an extract of H.sabdariffa, eaten day-to-day before breakfast for 4 months, identified reduction in blood strain identical to Captopril. One more randomized, placebo clinical trial involving 54 study members with reasonable hypertension demonstrated a reduction in the two systolic and diastolic blood strain. On the other hand on discontinuation of procedure, the two systolic and diastolic blood pressures have been subsequently elevated.
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a selection of medical utilizes in Chinese herbology. Lokapure s.g.et al. their investigation implies some potential in cosmetic pores and skin care for example, an extract from the bouquets of Hibiscus rosa- sinensis has been proven to perform as an anti-photo voltaic agent by absorbing ultraviolet radiation.
In the Indian conventional system of medicine, Ayurveda, hibiscus, particularly white hibiscus and pink hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), is regarded as to have medicinal houses. The roots are utilised to make several concoctions thought to get rid of illnesses this sort of as cough, hair decline or hair greying. As a hair procedure, the bouquets are boiled in oil together with other spices to make a medicated hair oil. The leaves and bouquets are floor into a fantastic paste with a very little water, and the resulting lathery paste is utilised as a shampoo in addition conditioner.
Hibiscus tea also includes bioflavonoids, which are thought to aid reduce an maximize in LDL cholesterol, which can maximize the buildup of plaque in the arteries.
A past animal study demonstrated the effects of H.sabdariffa extract on atherosclerosis in rabbits. Notably, a reduction in triglyceride, cholesterol, and reduced-density lipoprotein was noticed in rabbits consuming a high cholesterol diet program (HCD) in addition to H.sabdariffa extract when compared to rabbits only fed HCD, suggesting a helpful effect.[sixteen] Also, the H. sabdariffa seed is considerable in phytosterol and tocopherol, plant varieties of cholesterol that have antioxidant and LDL cholesterol reducing effects.
Safeguards and Contraindications:
Being pregnant and Lactation
While the system is not properly recognized, past animal reports have demonstrated the two an inhibitory effect of H. sabdariffa on muscle tone and the anti-fertility effects of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, respectively. The extract of H. sabdariffa has been proven to encourage contraction of the rat bladder and uterus the H.rosa-sinensis extract has exhibited contraceptive effects in the sort of estrogen exercise in rats. These results have not been noticed in humans. The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is also imagined to have emmenagogue effects which can encourage menstruation and, in some gals, cause an abortion. Because of to the documented adverse effects in animal reports and the claimed pharmacological houses, the H. sabdariffa and H.rosa-sinensis are not proposed for use all through pregnancy. Also, they are not proposed whilst breastfeeding because of to the lack of dependable details on its security and use.
No contraindications have been recognized.
It is postulated that H. sabdariffa interacts with diclofenac, chloroquine and acetaminophen by altering the pharmacokinetics. In wholesome human volunteers, the H. sabdariffa extract was identified to lower the excretion of diclofenac on co-administration. Also, co-administration of Karkade (H. sabdariffa), a typical Sudanese beverage, was identified to lower chloroquine bioavailability. On the other hand, no statistically considerable improvements have been noticed in the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen when administered with the Zobo (H.sabdariffa) drink. Even more reports are essential to demonstrate clinical importance.
In temperate zones, probably the most generally developed ornamental species is Hibiscus syriacus, the typical backyard hibiscus, also acknowledged in some spots as the “Rose of Althea” or “Rose of Sharon” (but not to be confused with the unrelated Hypericum calycinum, also termed “Rose of Sharon”). In tropical and subtropical spots, the Chinese hibiscus (H. rosa-sinensis), with its a lot of showy hybrids, is the most popular hibiscus.
Various hundred species are acknowledged, together with:
Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex Hiern.—False Roselle
Hibiscus archeri—Archer’s Hibiscus
Hibiscus arnottianus A.Gray—Kokiʻo ʻula (Hawaii)
Hibiscus asper—Bush Roselle
Hibiscus bifurcatus—Fork-bracted Rosemallow
Hibiscus biseptus—Arizona Rosemallow
Hibiscus boryanus—Foulsapate Marron
Hibiscus brackenridgei A.Gray—Hawaiian hibiscus Maʻo hau hele
Hibiscus caesius—Dark-eyed Hibiscus (South Africa)
Hibiscus calyphyllus—Lemonyellow Rosemallow (Tropical Africa)
Hibiscus cameronii—Cameron’s Hibiscus, Pink Hibiscus
Hibiscus cannabinus L.—Kenaf
Hibiscus cisplatinus—Rosa Del Rio
Hibiscus clayi O.Deg. & I.Deg.—Hawaiian pink hibiscus (Hawaii)
Hibiscus clypeatus—Congo Mahoe
Hibiscus coccineus (Medik.) Walter—Scarlet Rosemallow
Hibiscus columnaris—Mahot Rempart
Hibiscus coulteri—Desert Rosemallow
Hibiscus dasycalyx—Neches River Rosemallow
Hibiscus denudatus Benth.—Pale Experience (Southwestern United States, Northwestern Mexico)
Hibiscus dioscorides A.G.Mill. (es/pt) (Yemen)
Hibiscus diriffan A.G.Mill. (Yemen)
Hibiscus diversifolius—Swamp Hibiscus
Hibiscus engleri—Wild Hibiscus
Hibiscus fragilis DC.—Mandrinette (Mascarene Islands)
Hibiscus furcellatus Desr.—Lindenleaf rosemallow (Caribbean, Florida, Central America, South America, Hawaii)
Hibiscus furcellatus—Salad Hibiscus
Hibiscus genevii Bojer (Mauritius)
Hibiscus grandiflorus Michx.—Swamp rosemallow (Southeastern United States)
Hibiscus heterophyllus—Native rosella
Hibiscus hirtus—Lesser Mallow
Hibiscus insularis Endl.—Phillip Island hibiscus (Phillip Island)
Hibiscus kokio—Red Rosemallow
Hibiscus laevis All. (=H. militaris)—Halberd-leaved rosemallow (central and jap North America)
Hibiscus lasiocarpos—Woolly Rosemallow
Hibiscus leptocladus ([Northwest Australia])
Hibiscus lilacinus—Lilac Hibiscus
Hibiscus liliiflorus—Rodrigues Tree Hibiscus
Hibiscus macrophyllus—Largeleaf Rosemallow
Hibiscus makinoi—Okinawan Hibiscus
Hibiscus malacophyllus Balf.f. (Yemen)
Hibiscus martianus—Heartleaf Rosemallow
Hibiscus moscheutos Welw. ex Hiern.—Crimsoneyed Rosemallow (Central and Jap North America)
Hibiscus mutabilis L.—Cotton Rosemallow, Accomplice Rose (East Asia)
Hibiscus pernambucensis—Seaside Mahoe
Hibiscus phoeniceus—Brazilian Rosemallow
Hibiscus poeppigii—Poeppig’s Rosemallow
Hibiscus radiatus—Monarch Rosemallow
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.—Chinese hibiscus (East Asia)
Hibiscus sabdariffa L.—Roselle, Omutete, or Sorrel
Hibiscus schizopetalus—Fringed Rosemallow
Hibiscus stenanthus Balf.f. (Yemen)
Hibiscus striatus—Striped Rosemallow
Hibiscus syriacus L. (Style species)—Rose of Sharon (Asia)
Hibiscus tiliaceus L.—Sea hibiscus (Australia, Southeast Asia, Oceania)
Hibiscus trilobus—Threelobe Rosemallow
Hibiscus trionum L.—Flower-of-an-Hour
Hibiscus vitifolius—Tropical Rose Mallow
Hibiscus waimeae A.Heller—Kokiʻo keʻokeʻo (Hawaii)
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